iBT托福写作实战宝典
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iBT托福写作实战宝典

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品牌 : 京东图书 出版时间 : 2015-10-01 品牌属地 : 中国 出版社 : 中国人民大学出版社 ISBN : 9787300218335 版次 : 1 页数 : 280 包装 : 平装 著者 : 苑文,曲凯琨
编辑推荐

本书的讲解细致而全面。从评分标准入手,根据考试要求讲述写作方法。在掌握基本的写作框架之后,补充必要的语言素材和基础知识。避免了套句、模板,强调了写作基本功,可以让考试分数和写作能力同步提高。全书对独立写作的题型和回答方法做了详尽的讲解,可以提高考生对于题目的适应和应变能力。在良好的独立写作的基础上,熟悉综合写作的考试特点和主要题型,可以起到事半功倍的效果。
内容简介

全书包括9章。第1章是 TOEFL写作评分标准详解。本章旨在帮助考生了解托福写作的特点。第2章是Independent Writing Task开头结尾写法详解,第3章是 Independent Writing Task主体段论证方式详解。这两章主要涉及基本写作框架和方法。第4章是背景分类词汇及素材,第5章是Independent Writing Task高分句式详解。这两章主要针对可以快速提高的写作知识积累。第6章是Independent Writing Task题型分类详解,主要针对不同类型题目的回答问题的药店。第7章是 Independent Writing Task语言技巧,主要针对语言基本功训练。第8章是 Integrated Writing Task题型详解,第9章 Integrated Writing Task写作方式。这两章主要帮助考生能快速提高综合写作成绩。
作者简介

苑文 曲凯琨
目录

第1章 TOEFL写作评分标准详解
第一节 TOEFL写作考试介绍
一、TOEFL 考试介绍
二、TOEFL 写作考试介绍
第二节 TOEFLIndependent Writing Task考试详解
一、TOEFL Independent Writing Task评分标准
二、TOEFL Independent Writing Task官方题库
第三节 2014年TOEFL Writing Task考情分析
一、Integrated Writing Task的变化
二、Independent Writing Task的变化
三、Independent Writing Task的机经变化
第2章 Independent Writing Task开头结尾写法详解
第一节 开头写作方法详解
一、开头段写作方法详解
二、转述题目的方法
三、如何写好全文主旨句
四、开头段其他常用句型
第二节 TOEFL Independent Writing Task的结尾
一、结尾段写作要求
二、结尾段写作模式
三、结尾常用表达
第3章 Independent Writing Task主体段论证方法详解
第一节 Independent Writing Task文章结构详解
一、Independent Writing Task五段式结构
二、Independent Writing Task四段式结构
第二节 Independent Writing Task主体段逻辑论证方式
一、主体段展开方式
二、主体段论证方式
第4章 背景分类词汇及素材
第一节 教育类词汇及素材
第二节 社会生活类词汇及素材
第三节 成功类词汇及素材
第四节 工作类词汇与素材
第五节 政府类词汇及素材
第六节 科技类词汇和素材
第七节 环保类词汇及素材
第八节 媒体类词汇及素材
第九节 休闲娱乐类词汇及素材
第十节 交友类词汇及素材
第5章 Independent Writing Task高分句式详解
第一节 支持类句式
一、支持类基础段句型
二、支持类强化段句型
第二节 反对类句型
一、反对类基础段句型
二、反对类强化段句型
第三节 比较类句型
一、比较类基础段句型
二、比较类强化段句型
第四节 让步类句型
一、让步类基础段句型
二、让步类强化段句型
第6章 Independent Writing Task题型分类详解
第一节 Independent Writing Task题型——利弊题详解
一、should类题型
二、二选一类
三、绝对词汇类题型
第二节 Independent Writing Task题型——事实信息类题型详解
一、今非昔比类题型
二、现象证明类题型
第7章 Independent Writing Task语言技巧
第一节 句子成分和基本句型
一、句子8种基本成分
二、简单句基本句型介绍——5种句型
第二节 句子结构的多样性
一、 基本句子结构
二、从句的基本构成
三、句子多样性的实现
第三节 Independent Writing Task常见写作错误
一、主谓一致
二、不完整句
三、粘连句
四、悬垂修饰语
五、代词的误用
六、形容词和副词
第8章 Independent Writing Task题型详解
第一节Integrated Writing Task概述
一、Integrated Writing Task介绍
二、Integrated Writing Task写作要求
第二节Integrated Writing Task评分标准
一、Integrated Writing Task阅读文章结构解析
二、Integrated Writing Task听力文章结构解析
第三节Integrated Writing Task题型详解
第9章 Independent Writing Task写作方式
第一节Integrated Writing Task的写作方法
一、Integrated Writing Task的文章结构
二、Integrated Writing Task方法详解
第二节Integrated Writing Task范文欣赏
精彩书摘

一、开头段写作方法详解
为了解决大家面对电脑屏幕上的Independent writing task题“无从下手”、“头脑空白”乃至“思绪乱如麻”的问题,我们向大家介绍8种常见的开头段具体写作方法,辅以翔实的例子,让大家能从低门槛迈入托福写作的大门,为流畅地完成托福写作开个好头。
1. 背景法
背景法,顾名思义是通过介绍题目的社会背景来引出主题。所谓背景可以是社会发展状况,经济文化乃至政治局势等等。这种写法的好处在于简便易行,为题目论题设置合理的情境,便于读者理解。
具体写作方式:背景+重述题目+(反对方观点+理由)+自身观点+理由
请参考以下范例进行理解:
例1:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Drivers should pay a certain amount of fee to drive on the city streets during the busiest hours of a day.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
开头段:
With the Internet and high-tech devices becoming increasingly developed, there is a growing concern over the anxiety about information explosion. Therefore, quite a number of people doubt whether we need to pay our precious time and limited energy to care about numerous events happening in other places, especially those that seem irrelevant to our lives. As far as I am concerned, to learn what happen around the world would benefit us in some aspects.
例2:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Governments should focus its budgets more on environmental protection than on economic development.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
开头段:
Nowadays, people are becoming increasingly concerned about the contradiction between rapid economic development and environmental protection. It is always a dilemma for governments. As far as I am concerned, in terms of sustainable development, environmental preservation is more important than economic growth.
在书写背景式开头段时,请同学们掌握以下固定句型:
背景句常用句型:
(1)with 类
① With the fast/unexpected development/progress/promotion/widespread use of sth, …
② With sth developing/being promoted/being criticized/becoming increasingly popular …
(2)growing 类
① Nowadays/currently/presently, there is a growing concern over sth, which…
② Nowadays, sth is drawing/arousing/leading to/causing increasing concern among sb.
③ Nowadays, people are becoming increasingly concerned/worried/delighted over the widespread use of/the popularity of/the potential harm/benefits…may cause/lead to bring about.
④ The popularity/trend towards…leads to a…
(3)dilemma/controversy 类
① It/sth has always been a dilemma/controversy for…to do sth.
② It is never an easy task for sb to do sth.
③ Whether we should do a. or b. has never been an easy choice. As a matter of fact, people are easily swayed by many other factors, such as…
【练习题】
练习用背景法完成以下题目开头段:
(1)Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Business should hire employees for their entire lives.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
(2)Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
The public need not pay for public transportation.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

2. 举例法
举例法是在文章开头讲述事例从而引出主题内容,同学可以通过平时所读的报纸,杂志,以及在网络平台上所了解的一些真实的案例,或者也可以是周围人身上所发生的事件来引出所争论的题目。通过事例法引出论题,通常能引起读者的兴趣,同时也会使文章的主题更容易理解。
具体写作方式:举例+论题+(反对方观点+理由)+自身观点+理由
例1:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
It is important for families to regularly eat their meals together.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
开头段:
Last evening, I had dinner with my parents, and last family get-together was three months ago. Although my parents and I live in the same city, we do not often have meal together because I am so busy with my personal business and my work. I know that my story is not rare, and it is actually one of thousands of cases. From my perspective, having meal with families regularly is quite significant for strengthening family bonds and compensate for our lack of communication.
例2:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Strict parents will make kids more successful in the future?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
开头段:
The other day, I met Jenny, my schoolmate, who told me that she had no weekends at all since her parents required her to play the piano and then take TOEFL lessons. She said that she had an extremely tight schedule, and her parents had high expectation on her and zero tolerance for any sign of laziness. Jenny’s story is not unusual, but it is a rather typical case instead. However, I believe that being strict is not a right way that can lead to children’s success.
在书写举例法开头段时,请同学们掌握以下固定句型:
举例法常用句型:
① Last Sunday/The other day/Some months ago, I/a friend of mine … The case/story/incident is not rare/unusual. It is one/typical of thousands of…
② I have a friend/A friend of mine who… Such a choice/dilemma/problem we often meet/face/confront in our daily life.
③ Once in a hospital/school/street/newspaper, I saw/read of/learnt...
④ Once upon a time, there lived a man who ... This story may be (unbelievable) , but it still has a realistic significance now.
【练习题】
练习用举例法完成以下题目开头段:
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Teachers are appreciated and valued nowadays not as much as they were before.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
(2)Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
The best way to travel is in a group led by a guide.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

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