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（英）苏·凯（Sue Kay）, 中国社会科学院外籍专家，博士生导师，多次担任“外研社杯”全国英语辩论赛评委。
樊葳葳，华中科技大学外国语学院院长、教授，主要研究领域为英语教学与跨文化交际，对英语口语教学、英语演讲有深入研究。宿玉荣，对外经济贸易大学教师，曾师从国际演讲大师Stephen E. Lucas教授，深谙演讲理论知识，同时积累了大量基于中国课堂的教学实践经验。田朝霞，南京师范大学副教授，曾多次指导学生进入全国英语演讲大赛决赛，并先后担任“外研社杯”全国英语演讲大赛和“外研社杯”全国英语辩论赛评委。
Part One Guidelines for Public Speaking 演讲的基本原则
i. Introduction: Speaking in Public Requires More than a Voice
ii. How to Write a Speech (I): Script Content
iii. How to Write a Speech (II): Script Preparation
iv. How to Deliver a Speech (I): Vocal Delivery
v. How to Deliver a Speech (II): Physical Delivery
vi. Impromptu Speaking
Part Two Speeches & Comments 演讲与评析
No. 1 Unity and Diversity
No. 2 Unity in Diversity
No. 3 Unity and Diversity, the Two Pillars of the New Era
No. 4 A Uygur Girl Can Be Different and the Same
No. 5 The Importance of Being Different
No. 6 The Importance of Being Different
- Be Different from Yourself!
No. 7 The Importance of Being Different
No. 8 A Strategy for Saving the World
- Running Makes Us Healthier
No. 9 Global Citizenship Begins at Home
No. 10 Global Citizenship Begins at Home
- Stop Abusing Our Mother Earth
No. 11 Global Citizenship Begins at Home
No. 12 Global Citizenship Begins at Home
- Curiosity Propels Possibility
No. 13 The Global Me
- Speak Out for Children as a Global Citizen
No. 14 The Global Me
- Global Learning and a Global Learner
No. 15 Taking on My Challenges
No. 16 The New Me
No. 17 1+1=2?
- The Magic Walls: "-"? "+"?
No. 18 1+1=2?
No. 19 1+1=2?
No. 20 1+1=2?
- Simplify Your Life
No. 21 Changed by the Earthquake
No. 22 Changed by the Earthquake
No. 23 Olympian and Paralympian, Man and Superman
No. 24 Olympian and Paralympian, Man and Superman
No. 25 Culture Smart or Science Intelligent?
No. 26 Culture Smart or Science Intelligent?
- Smart Culture to Defeat the Abuse of the Intelligence of Science
No. 27 Culture Smart or Science Intelligent?
No. 28 Culture Smart or Science Intelligent?
- Balancing the Power of Science
No. 29 When Green Isn't Good
No. 30 What's Right with the World?
No. 31 What's Right with the World?
No. 32 What's Right with the World?
No. 33 Empty Nest Syndrome Is My Top Concern
No. 34 What I Do with My Life Is My Top Concern
No. 35 Friendship Is My Top Concern
No. 36 That Sleeping Angel Is My Top Concern
No. 37 A Different Kind of Power Is My Top Concern
No. 38 Living in Tranquility Is My Top Concern
No. 39 Doomsday Is My Top Concern
No. 40 Self-Discipline Is My Top Concern
No. 41 China's Brain Drain Is My Top Concern
No. 42 A Word That Has Changed the World - Listen
No. 43 A Word That Has Changed the World - "We"
No. 44 A Word That Has Changed the World - Concentration
No. 45 A Word That Has Changed the World - Laziness
No. 46 A Word That Has Changed the World - Why
No. 47 A Word That Has Changed the World - Speech
No. 48 A Word That Has Changed the World - Smile
No. 49 A Word That Has Changed the World - Wow!
No. 50 A Word That Has Changed the World
- Discontent, the Prelude to Progress
No. 51 Picture
No. 52 Picture
No. 53 Quotation
No. 54 Quotation
No. 55 Quotation
No. 56 Topic
No. 57 Topic
No. 58 Topic
No. 59 Topic
No. 60 Topic
No. 61 Topic
No. 62 Topic
No. 63 Topic
No. 64 Topic
No. 65 Topic
No. 66 Topic
No. 67 Topic
No. 68 Topic
No. 69 Topic
No. 70 Video
No. 71 Video
No. 72 Video
No. 73 Video
No. 74 Video
No. 75 Video
No. 76 Video
No. 77 Video
No. 78 Video
No. 79 Video
No. 80 Video
No. 81 Video
No. 82 Video
No. 83 Video
No. 84 Video
No. 85 Video
No. 86 Video
No. 87 Video
No. 88 Video
No. 89 Speaker 1
No. 90 Speaker 2
No. 91 Speaker 3
No. 92 Speaker 1
No. 93 Speaker 2
No. 94 Speaker 3
No. 95 Speaker 1
No. 96 Speaker 2
No. 97 Speaker 3
No. 98 Speaker 1
No. 99 Speaker 2
No. 100 Speaker 3
i. Introduction: Speaking in Public Requires More than a Voice
These guidelines are written for university students who want to improve their public speaking skills through competition or otherwise. They indicate some of the proven skills required and briefly indicate how they may be achieved.
A prepared speech should be written before it is delivered. This allows speakers to ensure that they are making relevant and sensible comments in a logical order and using appropriate language. It is evident that preparation requires practice and rehearsal, but it also requires the written speech to be worked on so that notes can be used effectively. Guidance will be given as to how to do this.
When giving a speech or presentation, the “how” is as important as the “what”. It has been found that 70% of communication is visual rather than verbal. Therefore, the content alone may not be enough to hold the interest of an audience. Indeed, there are many potentially interesting and entertaining topics that are made boring because the speaker has not learnt how to deliver their ideas and information appropriately. Likewise, interesting content well delivered in visual terms can be destroyed by a flat monotone, a harsh harangue or a weak chatty voice.
Learning how to give a short speech for which there has not been time given for preparation is a useful skill. It enables people to practice thinking on their feet whilst at the same time organizing what they want to say into an understandable structure. Guidance is provided on how to deal with impromptu speeches.
Guidance is therefore given in three sections:
· How to write a speech – script content and script preparation
· How to deliver a speech – vocal delivery and physical delivery
· Impromptu speeches
Note: Speaking competitions are sometimes judged under 3 headings: Manner (delivery), Matter (content) and Method (language). Method, the language element comes into both delivery (how you say something) and the content (what you say) so it has not been treated as a separate section in these guidelines.
ii. How to Write a Speech (I): Script Content
The English language requires the speaker or writer to make themselves clear. It is not up to the listener or reader to guess what is meant. Therefore it is important to be clear what you want to say and to choose the correct language. A collection of words without meaning (empty words) will not work. Nearly all effective public speakers will write their script in full and work on it before delivering their speech. It is known, for example, that Winston Churchill, one of Great Britain’s greatest orators, who
had an exceptional command of the English language worked late into the nights on his speeches. They may have sounded spontaneous, but were anything but!
Answering the following questions will help you get started on the right track.
1. What is the topic of your speech· If it has been given to you, then what does it mean·
2. Before starting to prepare a speech, think about who will be in your audience, what do they already know, what do they want to know, what will interest them·
3. Why are you giving the speech, what do you want to achieve, what is your message·
4. How long should you speak for· Where will you deliver your speech·
5. What are you going to say·
In order to answer number 5, brainstorm, think and discuss with friends, colleagues and teachers. Read and research your subject. Gather information and ideas. Make notes.
Also be brave! Be prepared, sometimes, to disagree with the sentiment in the statement or quotation but always give your reasons. Be careful about doing this with very well established ideas. They are well established because they have stood the test of time and have been challenged by many people before you. However, even if arguing for a point, be brave and look at the negative aspects. Few issues are black and white and discussing the negative may strengthen the positive. For example, if giving a speech on what you think is the greatest invention and you decide that it is “eye glasses”, describe what the world would be like without glasses: people bumping into each other, less cars on the road or more accidents; people unable to read, written instructions having to be in huge type, rather than describing what glasses can do for people.
Another approach is to challenge normally accepted ideas – disagree with them! For example, why is the Internet addictive· Is it· Maybe it isn’t· Perhaps people just don’t have anything else in their lives, are too lazy to find other forms of entertainment or have no imagination· What happened to books, music, art· Is reading addictive·
A good speech will have:
· A clear message and purpose
· Interest to the audience
· Adequate development of ideas
· A clear structure
· Logical flow – transitions and signposting
· An entertainment element – humor and/or word pictures
· The use of quotations and idioms
· Appropriate language
A clear message and purpose
a) Many speakers are tempted to try to say everything they know about a topic in order to show that they have done their homework and to prove how clever and deep thinking they are. This is a mistake! A list of undeveloped ideas is useless. The audience doesn’t have time to think about one idea before the next is spoken and even if they could, they can’t mind-read what the speaker thinks or means.
b) A good speech will have one clear message (especially true if it is a short speech) that the audience can find convincing. It will attempt to change people’s perceptions, to provide a new or unusual way of looking at the topic or to provide entertainment. This is why it is necessary to research your topic to find interesting and relevant information.
c) Generally, a speech should have few ideas but each idea should be developed in greater depth with more analysis than is often the case. (See “Adequate development of ideas” on Page 5.)
Interest to the audience
a) There is no value in stating the obvious. It is not interesting to talk about how much you love your parents or grandparents since this is self-evident. 99% of people in the world love their family. What would be more interesting would be to explore why some people don’t love their families, though for that, you may need a PhD in psychology and psychiatry to be able to talk with any authority! Speakers should not make self-evident statements as if they are profound thought. Indeed, they should not make self-evident statements in a public speech at all.
b) Don’t underestimate the intelligence of your audience. People won’t find an idea or information interesting if they already know it or if it is obvious. For example, in one competition, the topic given for the prepared speech was “The Internet”. Many speakers wasted time and annoyed their audience by describing the Internet. This was unnecessary since the audience, all university students and judges would already know what it is. Similarly, don’t say “When I was young, I learnt to walk and talk.” That is obvious!
c) In English, moralistic platitudes such as “working hard for tomorrow”, “striving to do one’s best”, “wanting to live a good life” and “hoping for a bright future” are self-evident and therefore not interesting. Similarly, phrases, such as “a bright future”, “attaining my dream”, are clichéd and in English sound insincere. Don’t say “You should work hard and you will realize your dreams.” That is nonsense! Many people work hard all their lives and don’t realize their dreams because their dreams are unrealistic, or they don’t have and can’t learn the necessary skills, or they just don’t get the lucky breaks. All intelligent people know that hard work is likely to bring some reward, and they don’t have to be told so.
在使用这套资料时，读者可以先从第一部分的理论讲解入手。这一部分由中国社会科学院外籍专家Sue Kay（英）撰写。Sue Kay女士多年来一直担任“外研社杯”全国英语演讲大赛和“外研社杯”全国英语辩论赛的评委，对英语演讲教学有系统的研究，对中国英语演讲者也有深入的了解。她的讲解框架清晰、内容实用，专业又易于理解，严肃中不乏幽默，将帮助读者梳理英语演讲的要点与技巧。对英语演讲的特点进行大致了解后，读者再对照音像资料阅读讲稿和点评，将有效加深对英语演讲的理解与认识。
由于篇幅所限，我们无法更加系统地阐述英语演讲的相关理论知识。外研社已经出版了英语演讲的相关图书，如Stephen E. Lucas（美）教授的《演讲的艺术》第十版（中国版），有兴趣的读者可以通过阅读这些图书，深入学习英语演讲的理论与技巧。
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