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藏在木头里的灵魂:中国建筑彩绘笔记

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国家宝藏第二季首期推荐内容

18世纪法国传教士笔下188幅绝美中国建筑首次面世

完整重译十八世纪法文原版,体会深刻人文情怀与历史感情,探求传统文化之美。!

守护历史、守护世界记忆

★建筑不仅是凝固的音乐,还是凝固的社会生活整体——

如果说《营造法式》中的中国建筑是技术性的,《园冶》中的中国建筑是文学性的,那么这本《藏在木头里的灵魂:中国建筑彩绘笔记》中的中国建筑则是社会科学性的。从照屏变化中介绍官员体系与形制规定、从亭子中看到“山水”这种独特的中国景观,在室内的细节里描述社会地位的分寸,从塔和台的关系猜测统治阶层的信仰和理想……

★宏观布局+微观细描,亦真亦幻——

工具—砖瓦—墙—照屏—亭子—桥—塔;住宅的单层—双层—三层—室内—台。从小到大,由简至繁,宏观的布局+局部的细描,彩绘图资料来源多样,图面信息综合。画中建筑是真实与想象并存的,这样能够展示的是更具有典型意义和足够内涵的“中国建筑”。

★换个视角,感受时间与空间的有趣变化——

今天,我们在大量研究与输入“西方建筑”,而在十八世纪,富庶广阔的中国是欧洲人想象中的文明世界与神秘古国。三百年前的作者站在法国看中国,而我们站在三百年后的中国看他们眼中的自己。感受时间与空间的有趣变化。

★向匠人和匠人精神致敬——

发现诗意的栖居之所,享受视觉的盛宴,领略传统文化之美,探寻生活与艺术的真谛。

★尊重原著,原味呈现——

翻译过程本着尽量保留历史信息的原则,尽可能保留原书的表达,让读者明白不同文明阶段、不同思考范式对同一事物的认知模式的差异以及可能的出现的结果,并由此知道,我们看到的事实和因果在不断演进,发现科学真相是无限逼近的过程。

★工艺精湛,追求卓越——

双封装帧,精美四色印刷,再现中国古典建筑之美。

更多优质好书请点击:


Content Description

《藏在木头里的灵魂:中国建筑彩绘笔记》是一本描绘介绍中国建筑的画谱手稿,完成于十八世纪,作者是姓名、履历已不可考的法国传教士。原书分上下两册,共包含188幅绘画。上册主要是建筑常用工具、砖瓦墙、照壁、亭子、桥和塔。下册主要是大型整体建筑结构和住宅内部摆设、台等。在没有影像的时代,来自西方传教士(或学者)通过绘画这种方式记录着他们了解的东方世界。通过这些绘画也让西方世界对于东方古国有更直观的感受。另外,书中的才华制作精美,内容丰富,哪怕仅仅当作装饰画册来看,也是美不胜收。

Author Description

范冬阳,女,1986年生。清华大学城乡规划学博士、建筑学学士,法国巴黎政治学院城市规划硕士。曾于2015年代表中国三十岁以下年轻人在法国里昂参加全球气候峰会总统论坛并与时任总统奥朗德进行对话;于2013年中法建交五十周年之际为来北京访问的巴黎副市长担任翻译;另有多篇译作发表于不同出版物,促进城市与建筑领域的中法交流。


Catalogue

译者序

前言

上 册

一、建筑工具/003

二、砖瓦墙/023

三、照壁/049

四、亭子/065

五、桥/125

六、塔/141

下 册

一、住宅/161

二、内厅/191

三、台/205

附:满族八旗兵营军官的住宅平面/223

后记/226


Book Abstract

我们用以下几点重要内容来结束本书。

1. 中国各省的平民百姓居住条件都非常差。这并不单纯是因为劳动力不足,也不是材料不够。那是什么呢?仔细观察就会发现,国家政府一直在促使社会风俗这样发展,如果不算那些商铺林立的大街道,即使在北京也有很多像在乡村里一样的土坯房屋。这说明什么呢?留待智慧的学者们去研究和发现,一个政权所承诺的社会效应到底是否能够出现,抑或只是空头远景。

2. 那些需要做到足够坚固以实现其功能的公共建筑和大型工程设施在中国都建造得很完备,不必细数长久以来沿用各朝代的桥梁、堤坝、城楼、水渠等,但那些纯粹为了用光鲜亮丽表现华美浮夸的建筑却都很短寿,不过是当了几年的装饰物而已。这一点中国人自己应该更加清楚。他们本可以用同样的方式建造所有的建筑物,但为什么他们没有?这样做有什么好处?政权从中看到了什么价值?值得深思。在这一点上要建立起两个事实的联系,一个是建筑的修缮费用来自每年的财政收入,第二个是建筑修缮的组织需要占用物料资源及相关领域的专业工匠。同时修缮还需要王公官员们竭智尽力以获取社会各方面的配合,包括被政府需求波及到的百姓、被物料征敛压迫的地主富户等。还是让学者们去研究其中的问题和后果吧。我们越是审视中国王权及其运作,就越觉得一切都经过了深思熟虑。

3. 最后一点,建筑艺术的顶峰之作都用于宗教建筑,或是受到皇权庇护的偶像崇拜功能的建筑。天坛在所有寺庙里独一无二,它是中华帝国的寺庙。只有天坛的围墙可以传达这一信息。同时其内部的一切都富丽精致、巧夺天工。天坛的设计平面不允许在任何其他地方使用,哪怕是皇宫也不可以。


Introduction

译者序

偶然的因缘,让我有机会把这本十八世纪写成的书从法语翻译成中文——《论中国建筑》,中文版出版后书名为《藏在木头里的灵魂:中国建筑彩绘笔记》。

两三百年后的今天,如果有人敢写名字如此大气的书,那至少是位著作等身、鹤发童颜的建筑学专家。然而,本书的作者是位法国传教士——时空消散,专门从事文化艺术史研究的学者考其姓名履历已不可得,我们只能从字里行间的吉光片羽中看出:他会中文、进过皇家园林、应该没有建筑专业背景、少言多思、具有宗教人士典型的谨慎和反省精神……所以,书名如此宏大,反映的不是作者的超人勇气,而是当时的认知条件。

十五世纪地理大发现开始以后,中国逐渐出现在欧洲人的视野中。发展至成书的十八世纪,富庶广阔的中国俨然成为欧洲人想象中的文明世界。然而限于遥远的距离、危险的交通和少量的纸媒,这个文明国度的信息只能依靠远道而来的使节、商人、传教士等最初的探险者进行传播。可以想象,当时的法国人从中国回到欧洲,给他的同胞们讲中国建筑,不啻于今天的航天员回到地球,向我们介绍他刚刚飞过的月球表面环形山。作者知道,山有好多种,要分类讲;为什么有这些种类,没在月亮上呆那么久,也不完全知道,只能按地球人的方式分类。作者还知道,人们真正感兴趣的,是那个月亮。

所以,用西欧地区十八世纪已经相对成熟的科学思维认识和解析中国建筑,是作者不自觉中采用的做法;从建筑中反映中国的整体情况,是作者无形中给自己和这本书的任务。

基于这样的原因,这本书呈现出这样几个特点:1.从彩绘图来看:资料来源是多样的,图面信息是综合的,画中建筑是真实与想象并存的。这样能够展示的是更具有典型意义和足够内涵的“中国建筑”。

中式轴侧画法和西式透视法同时出现在书内,可以推测绘画资料由中法画工分别完成后编纂而成,几幅带有中文文字的图(墙和照屏部分)昭示了中国画工的最小工作量。一些明显是根据想象创作的图画(“台”)甚至可能有作者本人参与创作构思。即使是历史上确实存在过的建筑,画面内也存在真实建筑与抽象类型结合的情况(“亭”等)。

2.从作者的文字来看:作者试图描述的现象和解释的内容是多角度的。如果说《营造法式》中的中国建筑是技术性的,《园冶》中是文学性的,那么本书中则是社会科学性的。与其说作者在解析中国建筑的“形态”,倒不如说在解析中国社会的“形态学”(morphology)。

作者一边按照线性的逻辑从小到大、由简至繁对建筑进行解析:从工具-砖瓦-墙-照屏-亭子-桥-塔;到住宅的单层-、双层-、三层-室内-台,同时他又会从照屏变化中介绍官员体系与形制规定、从亭子中看到“山水”这种独特的中国景观,在室内的细节里描述社会地位与交往礼仪的分寸,从塔和台的关系猜测统治阶层的信仰和理想……“看到建成后的园林,就仿佛看到了建造者在整个帝国内进行的各种征集聚敛。”(见“亭”),在作者眼中,建筑不是凝固的音乐,而是凝固的社会生活整体。

3.从今天的视角看,书中有一些谬误、空白和貌似冗余的信息。比如对建筑的分类主要基于单体的几何形态差异(中国建筑的内生逻辑是整体性和关系性的,此不赘述);完全忽略了对中国建筑的核心——木构造技术的介绍,如果真的就是“论建筑”,那么专业性显然不足(因此请希望系统学习“中国建筑”的读者选择更加权威的著作)。

作者身为宗教人士,却没有深入了解当时在中国盛行而历史悠久的佛教,以至于不知道“塔”的形状来自哪里,甚至要去欧洲古代寻找(事实上佛教也确实在二十世纪初才在欧洲开始广泛传播)。也因此我大胆揣测,最后出现的“台”的部分,单独看甚是无厘头,其实可能是作者在有限的经验内对塔的来源做出了假设,努力从中国历史源头上寻找种子、建立因果。却没想到历史的发展完全可以因为外来文化的介入而获取新的形式。其他在今天看来都经不起推敲细节还有很多,然而无论如何,本书的工作完整地体现了十八世纪的欧洲精神——就是启蒙运动所倡导的“科学”。作者以中国建筑为对象,完成了“收集资料-分类-分析-假设并寻求佐证-建立因果和解释/存疑”的全过程。——或许今天的我们对科学研究方法已司空见惯,然而在三百年前,成千上万欧洲传教士就是用这种方式认识了世界上还不具备科学精神的领土,并迅速实现了对其物质财富和精神财富的利用和占有。就在本书完成一个世纪以后,欧洲崛起,而直至今日,我们还在大量输入“西方建筑”……

正如作者在原书开篇的问题:“有必要在欧洲介绍中国建筑么?”我们也要问:“有必要在现今推出这本书么?”尤其当今天的学术界对中国古建筑的系统研究已经达到前所未有的深度和细节,而实践中现代建筑又几乎完全吞噬了古建筑的生存空间。

我觉得,这本书的价值在于,让我们更加慎重地对待认知和理解:明白不同文明阶段、不同思考范式对同一事物的认知差异以及可能出现的结果,并由此知道,我们看到的事实和因果在不断演进,发现科学真相是无限逼近的过程。故此,翻译也本着尽量保留历史信息的原则,不对任何前述的明显谬误做出更改,尽可能保留原书的表达,让读者感受历史时空的陌生和似曾相识。

当然,除了这些抽象的意义,书中的彩画制作精美,内容丰富,哪怕仅仅当作装饰图册来看,能激发的关于中国大清帝国时期的繁华想象也是美不胜收。

三百年前的作者站在法国看中国,我们站在三百年后的中国看他眼中的自己。知识的整体就是各个部分的相互观照、嵌入和互耦,而进步就是由此引起的反观自省和重构。希望我浅薄的见解,能为不吝热情观照此书的读者们提供一点线索,贻笑大方的同时也抛砖引玉,促成共同的探讨和成长。

感谢并纪念这位为我们留下珍贵历史资料的无名法国传教士。

二〇一七年元月于清华园

前言

有必要在欧洲介绍中国建筑么?其中的知识有用吗?回答这个问题的最好的办法就是出版这个小画册,我们在其中可以补充一些没能给出的答案。限于篇幅,我们不能在每个部分都尽情展开,就只是提供相关的专业术语;在需要详细解释的部分附上部件的简单草图,但对这些草图的内容我们是有所保留的,因为我们当时没能留下文件的副本。

我们似乎还算比较轻松地了解了中国的一些工艺,下面就开始认识这一册中的木工、泥瓦工和屋面工的工具及器具。看图就能获得的信息便不再赘述,只对不容易理解的部分标注名称或解释。


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All items are excluding from any promotion or points events on Yamibuy.com

Return Policy

You may return product within 30 days upon receiving the product. Items returned must be new in it's original packing, including the original invoice for the purchase. Customer return product at their own expense.

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Jingdong book

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