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自闭症儿童社交游戏训练:给父母及训练师的指南

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自闭症儿童社交游戏训练:给父母及训练师的指南

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Editer Recommend

1、虽然市场有现在有很多介绍自闭症的书,但大部分都停留在理论和介绍层次,即告诉家长们什么是自闭症、如何判断是否是自闭症等,而真正介绍训练方法的却不多。
2、《自闭症儿童社交游戏训练:给父母及训练师的指南》刚好是这样一本理论介绍少、操作性强的书,还可联系北京各区及其他各地的培智学校,有这些学校的老师推介给自闭症孩子的家长是个很不错的销售途径。
3、读者:自闭症孩子的家长、学校的心理咨询老师以及从事自闭症研究的老师。
Content Description

自闭症儿童与其他大多数儿童不同,他们似乎生活在自己的世界里,不接受你的微笑或拥抱;身边的人会对你投来同情或责备的目光,它们刺痛着你的心。
但请你千万不要放弃,伸出你的手,放慢你的脚步,耐心学习,指导他成长。
虽然,他可能不会一下变成你梦想中的样子,但他会一点点进步,会与你交流,会对你微笑,最终你会为他的成长感到幸福与骄傲!
Author Description

BrookeIngersoll博士和AnnaDvortcsak博士是美国著名的心理学家,他们是自闭症儿童社交训练项目的发起者,并将此方法应用在很多自闭症儿童身上,取得了非常好的效果,同时也得到了很多家长的认同。
Catalogue

第Ⅰ部分 绪论
第1章 概述
第2章 为了成功需在家里进行的准备

第Ⅱ部分 交互式教导技术
第3章 跟随孩子的引导
第4章 模仿孩子
第5章 充满活力
第6章 示范与扩展语言
第7章 有趣的障碍物
第8章 均衡的轮换
第9章 沟通诱惑物
第10章 交互式教导技术回顾

第Ⅲ部分 直接的教导技术
第11章 直接的教导技术概述
第12章 教导孩子表达性语言
第13章 教导孩子接受性语言
第14章 教导孩子社交模仿
第15章 教导孩子游戏
第16章 直接的教导技术回顾

第Ⅳ部分 整合并前进
第17章 整合
第18章 前进(最后阶段)
Book Abstract

第Ⅱ部分
交互式教导技术
第3章
跟随孩子的引导
跟随孩子的引导是这个程序中其他大部分技术的基础。在这项技术中,你可以让孩子选择玩具或活动。研究表明,与由成人选择相比,当由孩子选择活动时,他们表现出更加适当的社交和游戏行为,并且破坏性行为也相对更少。即使成人选择的是一项孩子喜爱的活动,也是如此。通过让孩子选择玩具或游戏活动,你能够确保孩子参与并被激发。孩子的参与度越高,动机越强,他所学到的也就越多。跟随孩子的引导,同时也给他一个机会发起与你的互动。这向你表明,在没有你的帮助或支持时,他是如何进行沟通的。这里有几个关键的步骤,可以让你有效地运用这项技术。
让孩子选择活动
一旦你的孩子选择一件玩具,等着看他怎么玩。通过等待,你让孩子获得了发起游戏并引导游戏的权利。对父母来说,让孩子来指挥所有的活动是非常困难的。特别是在孩子快速变换活动时尤为如此。许多父母试图教导孩子如何进行游戏,或者当孩子对游戏失去兴趣后要求他们继续玩。然而,为了有效地运用这项技术,你要确保总是监测到孩子的关注焦点。如果孩子捡起一个新玩具,跟随他玩新玩具,即使不得不停止玩他刚才喜爱的那个玩具。随着时间的推移,你可以逐渐增加孩子停留在任何一个活动中的时长。
与孩子面对面
把你自己置于孩子的视线之内,这样他就能够轻易地与你进行目光接触并看到你正在做的事情。因为目光接触是一个非常重要的社交参与的迹象,我们希望增加孩子的目光接触。同样的,当孩子能够轻易地看到你时,他就有机会来注意你正在做什么,你可以更容易地成为他的游戏中的一个积极部分。如果你在孩子的后面,他就看不到你正在做什么,而且也意识不到你是互动中的一个部分。
加入孩子的游戏
在游戏中帮助孩子,让你成为游戏中的一个必要部分。当孩子正在建造一座城堡时,把石块递给他或者轮流把石块放在城堡上(见图3.1)。如果孩子正在开车,把一个人放进车里。如果孩子有所抗拒,这也是一个沟通形式,适当地照着他的要求做。有些孩子虽然非常难以参与,但是他们对身体或感官游戏的反应非常好。例如,如果你的孩子喜欢爬,让他参加打闹游戏;如果他喜欢旋转,把他放到转椅上;如果他喜欢触摸纹路,让他感觉干燥的豆或米;如果他喜欢盯着灯看,和他一起玩手电筒。为孩子提供积极的感官体验,同时你可以让自己成为体验中的一个部分。请记住,你的孩子是引导者,所以避免对孩子的游戏进行指引或试图教他如何“正确地”游戏。
图3.1 跟随孩子的引导。妈妈通过递给强尼一个木块来加入他的游戏
对游戏进行评论,但是不要提问或发出命令
你可以对孩子或自己正在做的事情进行评论,但是不要向孩子提问或发出指令;这些做法会偏离孩子的引导。尽管他可以有所回应,但是这并非自发的沟通。这里的目标是增强孩子的自发沟通及其对你的关注。
等待孩子参与或与你沟通
一旦你完成了上述步骤——等待,注意观察孩子可能参与或与你沟通的任何迹象。他是否以任何方式接受你加入他的游戏?如果是的话,他是如何接受你的?他是否注视你,或者通过手势、声音,或者离开游戏?当你没有帮他时,上述任何一种行为都可以成为孩子自发的沟通方式。
父母需要克制自己,不要对孩子的需求进行预期、不要对他提问、不要告诉他怎么做,并且不要选择活动。无论如何,等待给予你的孩子发起参与的机会。等待同时也确保了活动由孩子选择。这样可以增强孩子的动机和关注。
保持敏感,但是坚持
对孩子的挫败保持敏感,但是坚持与孩子的互动。不要羞于孩子的抗拒。如果你的孩子表达挫败感,他仍然在与你互动。认同他的感受,但是不要停止互动,可以尝试换一种方式加入他的游戏。
控制情境
跟随孩子的引导,直至他违反你对他的行为所制定的规则。规则和结果要一致。请记住你是控制情境的人,因此你要决定哪些行为是可被接受的。不要允许那些可能会破坏财产或伤害孩子及其他人的行为。如果孩子做出一个不被接受的行为,让他明白这种行为是不好的,并且把引发问题的玩具或物体移开。
当你练习这个技术时,你的训练师会帮助你识别孩子的兴趣并发现他如何、为何以自己的方式沟通,以及沟通的频率。这些方面会帮助你识别孩子的独立沟通和游戏技能。
对跟随孩子的引导的提示
玩具游戏
· 把孩子喜欢的玩具准备好。在有可能的时候,选择那些能够让你轻易成为孩子游戏中的一个部分的玩具,比如乐器、软胶球以及汽车。
· 要有创造性。请记住,并非所有的“玩具”都需要从玩具店购买。孩子通常喜欢玩家里的东西,比如炊具、银器、扫帚和簸箕、刷子,以及洗衣篮。
· 请记住,如果孩子选择用一种不同寻常的方式玩玩具或其他东西,不要感到灰心。
大动作游戏
· 如果你的孩子喜欢大动作活动的话,跟随他的引导进行像追逐和挠痒的活动,或者玩蹦床、降落伞、秋千、轮滑及其他游戏。如果想要选择便宜的活动,则可以考虑在床上或沙发上跳跃,或者躲在毯子下面。
· 确保你自己能够参与孩子的这些活动。例如,当孩子在秋千上时,站在他的前面并推他几次。然后等着看他是否表示想要你再推他。
感官游戏
· 如果你的孩子更喜欢对玩具进行感官探索,跟随他的引导进行这些活动。例如,如果孩子享受流水,可以和他一起玩水龙头、水管或洒水车,表现出对他所选择的活动的兴趣。如果孩子喜欢让沙子或其他东西穿过他的手指,可以用杯子把沙子倒在他的手上,或者当沙子穿过他手指的时候用另一个杯子接住沙子。
· 确保你自己能够参与孩子的这些活动。例如,如果孩子正在开灯关灯,加入其中并和他轮流关灯。
家庭作业 跟随孩子的引导
基本原理:这项技术可以增强孩子的参与性、动机和发起游戏的兴趣。它也可以帮助你确定没有你帮忙孩子自己是如何进行沟通的。
记忆和实施要点:
让孩子选择活动。
与孩子面对面。
加入孩子的游戏。
评论游戏,但是不要提问或发出命令。
等待孩子参与或与你沟通。(注意的行为包括目光接触、手势、发出声音、字词,或其他任何有意识的行为)
保持敏感,但是坚持。
控制情境。
周目标
孩子的目标:
活动:
1. 孩子对于你参与他选择的活动有何反应?他玩得时间更长,还是更多地变换活动?
2. 当你跟随孩子进行新活动时,他有何反应?
3. 当你和孩子面对面地坐着时,他有何反应?他是否移开?是否注视你?是否微笑?
4. 当运用这项技术时,你能够和孩子玩多长时间?
5. 你的孩子是怎样与你沟通的(手势、目光接触、发出声音、字词等)?
6. 运用这项技术对你来说困难吗?如果困难的话,你面临哪些挑战呢?
……

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