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Jingdong book

简读宋朝史(从五代十国到南宋灭亡)

简读宋朝史(从五代十国到南宋灭亡)

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Editer Recommend

华夏民族之文化,历数千载之演进,造极于赵宋之世。

——“三百年来第 1 人”,一代史学大师:陈寅恪

历史进入了宋朝就好像从古代进到了现代。

——著名教授、学者,《万历十五年》作者:黄仁宇

两宋时期物质文明和精神文明所达到的高度,在整个封建社会历史时期内,可以说是空前绝hou的。

——中国历史学家、著名宋史学家:邓广铭

唐宋是中国历史的分水岭,唐代以前是中国的中古,宋代以后是中国的近世!

——日本著名历史学家:内藤湖南

如果能穿越到一个朝代的话,那我肯定选宋朝,宋朝文人的地位比较高,而且文人的生活在宋朝也比较精致。

——著名作词人:林夕


Content Description

全景解读大宋王朝盛衰历程!

大宋王朝承五代十国的乱世而立国,它从未能完全统一中国,后期更受“靖康之耻”被掠去半壁河山,只能偏安秦岭、淮河以南,最后因蒙古的崛起而灭亡。

终宋一朝,一直处于辽、西夏、金、蒙古的夹缝中生存,外患z 为强烈,加之其政治上采取重文轻武、守内虚外的政策,使它在领土疆域和政治影响力上从未如汉、唐那般强盛过。

然而,它在经济和文化上却取得了辉煌的成就,是史学家公认的中国封建王朝中经济z 发达、商业z 繁荣的时代。


Author Description

萧文子,原名肖伟,男,毕业于四川师范大学汉语言文学专业,中国民主促进会会员。

好读书,喜动笔,醉心研究中国历史多年,有其独到见解,相关历史类作品常见于各类杂志、报刊。

代表作:《简读宋朝史》《简读隋唐史》


Book Abstract

隆兴北伐

作为高宗亲自择定的接班人,孝宗并不像高宗那样苟且偷安和不思进取,他心底一直有洗血“靖康之耻”、恢复中原之地的意识。

绍兴三十一年(1161)完颜亮率军南侵抵达江北,高宗和部分大臣又想溜之大吉,孝宗即上书请求领兵与金军决战,表露了他对金朝的态度。史浩担心他的求战欲望与高宗坚定的求和主义冲突,会失去高宗青睐,便提醒他注意韬光养晦,加之陈康伯等苦谏高宗亲征,孝宗于是再次上书,请求在亲征时随驾保护。

正是在随高宗“亲征”的过程中,孝宗协助处理朝章奏疏,恪尽臣子之道,赢得了群臣的普遍赞誉,进一步坚定了高宗提前禅位的决心。

即位后,孝宗终于可以一展抱负,他迅速为岳飞冤案平反,对秦桧构陷的其他冤案也进一步做出处理,并继续重用陈康伯、虞允文、张焘等高宗时期坚持抗金的大臣。孝宗还将罢黜近二十年的主战派老臣张浚召回朝中,共商恢复大计,并任命他为江淮宣抚使。虽然受到高宗冷嘲热讽,但他仍公开表示:“朕倚魏公(张浚)如长城,不容浮言摇夺。”

隆兴元年(1163),孝宗任命张浚为枢密使,都督江淮军马,开督府于建康,为北上伐金做准备。这时的宰执班子中,左相陈康伯在高宗时就是坚定的主战派,屡次力排众议说服高宗抗金,右相是对孝宗继位起过重要作用的史浩,他却是安于现状的主和派,对孝宗锐意北伐始终持反对态度。

金世宗统一金朝稳定政局后,曾试图与宋朝讲和,但遭到拒绝,他便派仆散忠义为都元帅坐镇开封,统一指挥黄河以南的各路金军,准备对宋朝实行以战迫和的政策。隆兴元年三月,金军大将纥石烈志宁进兵灵璧(今属安徽),同时致书张浚,要求宋朝遵守绍兴和议的约定,将采石之战前后被宋军攻战的海、泗、唐、邓、商等州郡归还给金朝,并继续向金朝纳贡岁币绢帛,否则将对宋用兵。

前线形势恶化,宋朝不得不就和战问题做出决定。和战两派大臣各自表态,张浚主张立即出师北伐,并敦请孝宗到建康督战激励士气;史浩则反对贸然出兵,建议先加强长江防线,做到万无一失,然后再秣马厉兵、伺机而动。客观地说,就当时宋金双方形势而言,史浩的主张是合理的。

两派争论多日,最后还得孝宗做出决策,他早就想北伐雪耻,此时岂能容忍金朝挑衅?

四月,孝宗为规避反对意见,索性绕过三省与枢密院,直接向张浚下达了北伐诏令。听说此消息,高宗这个老乞和派忙召见孝宗,希望他能收回成命,孝宗默然不应。史浩也因不得与闻北伐决策,愤而辞相,孝宗同意他出知绍兴府。

张浚在接到北伐诏令之后,连夜赶回建康部署。北伐宋军调兵八万,号称二十万,一路由李显忠率领攻取灵璧,一路由邵宏渊指挥攻取虹县(今安徽泗县)。李显忠此前因力主抗金而被秦桧贬官削职,完颜亮南侵时才被重新起用,被张浚视为干将。而邵宏渊却有心胸狭窄的缺点,他与李显忠既无故交,又不相统属,这两路分兵的部署早早埋下失败祸端。

五月,李显忠顺利攻克灵璧,而邵宏渊却久攻虹县不下,李显忠派灵璧降卒前去劝降,虹县守将才放弃抵抗。邵宏渊不仅不感激,反而以功在人后为耻,此时恰好他麾下士兵抢了金军降卒的佩刀,李显忠未与他通气便将之斩首示众以儆效尤,更令邵宏渊不满。李显忠提议乘胜进攻宿州(今安徽宿州),邵宏渊却无动于衷。李显忠无权调动邵部兵马,只能率部独自攻打宿州,等到城破,双方激烈巷战之时,邵宏渊即又率部投入战斗抢功。

攻克宿州令宋朝君臣大为振奋,孝宗升李显忠为淮南、京畿、京东、河北招讨使,邵宏渊为副使,但他耻居李下,向张浚表示拒绝接受李显忠的节制。而张浚则迁就了邵宏渊的无理要求。两将矛盾越来越深,宋军无法统一指挥、协调行动,离失败已经不远。

李显忠也犯了个错误。邵宏渊提议将宿州府库中的钱帛全部拿来赏赐给士兵,李显忠只同意每三个士兵赏一千钱,却放纵自己亲信部下任意搬取。邵宏渊趁机在暗中起哄,其时宋军中多有骄兵悍将,对李显忠奖励不公大为不满,干脆拒绝受赏,人心立时浮动。

形势此消彼长,金军这时已从仓促应战的慌乱中调整过来,开始调兵遣将进行反击。孝宗和张浚见时值盛夏人困马乏,担心宋军有失,也下诏令其撤退,但诏书未达军中,金军已经先至。

五月二十二日,金将纥石烈志宁率先头部队万余人来攻宿州,被李显忠击败。但金军十万主力随即赶到,李显忠一面率军苦战,一面通知邵宏渊出兵夹击金军。邵宏渊不仅按兵不动,还大说风凉话:“天气如此炎热,手不离扇尚嫌不凉快,何况在大日头下披甲苦战!”统帅作如是说,军心更加涣散,无复斗志。

当夜,邵宏渊部中军统制周宏自为鼓噪,扬言金军来攻,宋军遂不战自溃。金军乘机攻城,李显忠率麾下将士奋力抵抗,当此紧急关头,邵宏渊仍不肯与李显忠合力守城,却极力主张弃城撤退。李显忠杀敌两千余,终难阻溃败,叹道:“这是老天不让大宋收复中原啊!”只好率部撤退。但行未多远,宋军被追击的金军赶上,士兵们丢盔弃甲全线崩溃,连同随军民夫在内的十三万人马伤亡殆尽,粮草物资也拱手送与金军。

李显忠、邵宏渊二将在乱军中逃脱,所幸金军不知底细,没有贸然追击,宋军才在淮河一线稳住阵脚。至此,历时才二十天的“隆兴北伐”以宋军溃败告终。

因宿州旧名“符离”,故史称这场惨败为“符离之溃”。


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Jingdong book

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Jingdong book

步步惊心.上

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Jingdong book

步步惊心.下

$41.82
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