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Jingdong book

悲剧的诞生

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尼采美学经典,创立日神与JIU神二元艺术冲动学说,解开悲剧美学之谜。

悲剧被看作艺术的高级形式乃至ding峰,因而成为一个重大的美学课题。然而,在尼采看来,有两个问题始终没有得到解决:一是希腊悲剧的起源,二是悲剧快感的实质。在领悟到日神和JIU神的二元艺术冲动以后,尼采觉得他手中有了一把钥匙,足以使他成为真正解开悲剧之谜的第YI人。正因为希腊人过于看清了人生在本质上的悲剧性质,所以他们才迫切地要用艺术来拯救人生,于是有了ZUI辉煌的艺术创造。

是关于希腊艺术的美学讨论,也是关于生命意义的形而上学思考。根本的问题只有一个:如何为本无意义的世界和人生创造出一种ZUI有说服力的意义来。

日神精神的潜台词是:就算人生是个梦,我们要有滋有味地做这个梦,不要失掉了梦的情致和乐趣。JIU神精神的潜台词是:就算人生是幕悲剧,我们要有声有色地演这幕悲剧,不要失掉了悲剧的壮丽和快慰。前者教人不放弃人生的欢乐,后者教人不回避人生的痛苦。二者综合起来,便是尼采所提倡的审美人生态度。

尼采一生主要哲学思想的诞生地,同时收录《JIU神世界观》和《自我批判的尝试》。

尼采围绕希腊悲剧的课题工作了三年,《JIU神世界观》为预备性成果之一,生前未出版,从中可一窥其核心思想的形成过程。《自我批判的尝试》是尼采为《悲剧的诞生》1886年版所作的序,是对自己早期思想的批判性理解。

哲学家周国平翻译并撰写长篇导读,带你读懂原著。

知名作家、中国社会科学院研究员周国平是国NEI研究尼采的权WEI学者,译文准确、优美、流畅,再现尼采的诗意和激情。近2万字的长篇导读,详解主要观点和写作背景,带你读懂原著。

“《悲剧的诞生》发表已经一百年了,但是,从批评史的观点看,这部著作在很大程度上仍然是不可思议的。”——《校勘研究版尼采全集》编者后记


Content Description

尼采第YI部正式出版的著作,在本书中,尼采开创性地提出日神和JIU神二元艺术冲动学说,在对希腊艺术进行美学讨论的同时,完成了他对生命意义的思考。本书既是尼采哲学的诞生地,也是理解尼采全部美学和哲学的前提。此外,尼采还对以苏格拉底科学乐观主义为特征的现代文化作出了批判,以此发端,开始了其在西方思想史SHANG的开创同时也是颠覆之旅。

Author Description

弗里德里希·尼采 (1844-1900)

德国哲学家,他的思想对西方现代哲学和文化产生了重大影响。主要著作有《悲剧的诞生》《查拉图斯特拉如是说》《善恶的彼岸》《偶像的黄昏》等。

周国平

当代知名学者、作家,中国社会科学院哲学研究所研究员。著有学术专著《尼采:在世纪的转折点上》《尼采与形而上学》,散文集《灵魂只能独行》《爱与孤独》等,纪实作品《妞妞:一个父亲的札记》等。译著有《悲剧的诞生》《偶像的黄昏》等。


Book Abstract

◎ 金句

1、每部真正的悲剧都用一种形而上的慰藉来解脱我们:不管现象如何变化,事物基础之中的生命仍是坚不可摧和充满欢乐的。

2、只有作为一种审美现象,人生和世界才显得是有充足理由的。在这个意义上,悲剧神话恰好要使我们相信,甚至丑与不和谐也是意志在其永远洋溢的快乐中借以自娱的一种审美游戏。

3、希腊人知道并且感觉到生存的恐怖和可怕,为了能够活下去,他们必须在它前面安排奥林匹斯众神的光辉梦境之

诞生……这个民族如此敏感,其欲望如此热烈,如此特别容易痛苦,如果人生不是被一种更高的光辉所普照,在他们的众神身上显示给他们,他们能有什么旁的办法忍受这人生呢?

4、希腊人深思熟虑,独能感受最细腻、最惨重的痛苦,他们用这歌队安慰自己。他们的大胆目光直视所谓世界史的可怕浩劫,直视大自然的残酷,陷于渴求佛教涅槃的危险之中。艺术拯救他们,生命则通过艺术拯救他们而自救。

5、审美现象归根到底是单纯的。谁只要有本事持续地观看一种生动的游戏,时常在幽灵们的围绕下生活,谁就是诗人。谁只要感觉到自我变化的冲动,渴望从别的肉体和灵魂向外说话,谁就是戏剧家。

6、艺术家的生成之快乐,反抗一切灾难的艺术创作之喜悦,毋宁说只是倒映在黑暗苦海上的一片灿烂的云天幻景罢了。

7、在日神艺术中,是用美来神化人生。在酒神艺术中,是用酒神世界观来为世界和人生辩护。

8、艺术是生命的最高使命和生命本来的形而上活动。

9、当批评家支配着剧场和音乐会、记者支配着学校、报刊支配着社会的时候,艺术就沦为茶余饭后的谈资,而美学批评则被当作维系虚荣、涣散、自私、原本可怜而绝无创造性的社团的纽带了,叔本华关于豪猪的寓言说明了这种社团的意义。结果,没有一个时代,人们对艺术谈论得如此之多,而尊重得如此之少。

10、他看到眼前的悲剧英雄具有史诗的明朗和美,却又快意于英雄的毁灭。他对剧情的理解入木三分,却又宁愿逃入不可解的事物中去。他觉得英雄的行为是正当的,却又因为这行为毁了当事人而愈发精神昂扬。他为英雄即将遭遇的苦难颤憟,却又在这苦难中预感到一种更高的强烈得多的快乐。他比以往看得更多更深,却又但愿自己目盲。这种奇特的自我分裂,日神顶峰的这种崩溃,我们倘若不向酒神魔力去探寻其根源,又向哪里去探寻呢?

11、只有在希腊人那里,大自然才达到它的艺术欢呼,个体化原理的崩溃才成为一种艺术现象。在这里,肉欲和暴行混合而成的可憎恶的“妖女的淫药”也失效了,只有酒神信徒的激情中,那种奇妙的混合和二元性才使人想起它来—就好像药物使人想起致命的毒药一样。其表现是,痛极生乐,发自肺腑的欢喊夺走哀音;乐极而惶恐惊呼,为悠悠千古之恨悲鸣。

12、这里没有任何东西使人想起苦行、修身和义务;这里只有一种丰满的乃至凯旋的生存向我们说话,在这个生存之中,一切存在物不论善恶都被尊崇为神,于是,静观者也许诧异地面对这生机盎然的景象,自问这些豪放的人服了什么灵丹妙药,才能如此享受人生,以致目光所到之处,海伦——他们固有存在的这个“飘浮于甜蜜官能”的理想形象,都在向着他们嫣然微笑。

13、尼采从酒神秘仪中看到,希腊人不只是一个迷恋于美的外观的日神民族,他们的天性中还隐藏着另一种更强烈的冲动,就是打破外观的幻觉,破除日常生活的一切界限,摆脱个体化的束缚,回归自然之母永恒生命的怀抱。而且,不仅希腊人如此,这种冲动其实潜藏在一切人的天性中。尼采用酒神命名这种冲动,认为其本质就在于“个体化原

理崩溃之时从人的最内在基础即天性中升起的充满幸福的狂喜”。

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