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人类残酷进化史:适者生存,让我们都成了不完美的人

人类残酷进化史:适者生存,让我们都成了不完美的人

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Editer Recommend

如果你想了解生物学,又不想看枯燥的讲解,那么,这本书适合你!

颠覆你对达尔文《物种起源》的固有错误认知,打破你的认知体系!


※人类不在进化的顶点,也不在进化的终点,我们正在进化的途中!!

所有生物都是“不完美”的,才会出现进化,人类也是。

或许有人会说:我们人类是进化的不良品,却站上了地球物种的顶端?

但,这根本是人类傲慢的想象。


※全新概念:一本认识进化论和生物学的入门良书!

人类的手不如黑猩猩的灵活,难道人类进化得不如黑猩猩?

脑袋大的生物很容易肚子饿?大脑需要消耗的能量比我们想象的更多!

发生在地球上的抢椅子游戏,生物个数大于椅子数,这就是“生存斗争”……

用幽默轻松、通俗易懂的文笔描述人类进化历程,让读者了解“生物进化”的本质。


※我们为了进化舍弃了什么?又得到了什么?

人类选择了双足直立行走,所以永远摆脱不了腰痛,女性也很难避开难产的可能性……

人类为了血氧的供需能更顺利,心脏和肺脏的运送功能进行了让步,心脏病变的可能性增加……

就连死亡也是进化出来的结果,旧的不去、新的不来,死亡是为了进化出更适合生存的新品种……

进化或许残酷地让人类不断丢去原有的优势,却让我们活了下来;

即使人类是个进化不完美的残缺品,但依然自在地活在地球上!


是的我们仍在进化的路途上,而每一次进化都是有意义的。


Content Description

一本全新观念的生物学入门书:

人类是进化的不良品?如何站上了地球物种的顶端?


我们人类的心脏病、腰痛、难产居然是进化而来的?能自如运用复杂的工具,建立繁华文明的我们,实际上和地球上其他生物一样,竟是进化的失败之作?为了让我们更聪明,而进化得更大的大脑带来的副作用原来这么多?我们不适合一夫一妻制?如果没有肠内细菌的力量,我们连饭都吃不了!

各界盛赞的认识进化论和生物学的入门良书,用幽默通俗的文字描述人类进化历程,带你轻松了解“生物进化”的本质。颠覆你对达尔文《物种源起》旧有想法,告诉你什么才是真正的“适者生存,物竞天择”!

即使人类是个进化不完美的残缺品,但依然自在地活在地球上!


Author Description

[日]更科功 作者、日本知名畅销科普作家

1961年生于日本东京,毕业于东京大学大学院理学系研究科,理学博士。东京大学综合研究博物馆研究员,明治大学、立教大学兼任讲师。专攻分子古生物学,研究主题为“动物骨骼的进化”。

重要著作有:《灭绝的人类史──为何我们能活到现在?》(NHK出版新书)《化石的分子生物学──解开生命进化之谜》(讲谈社现代新书、荣获讲谈社科学出版大奖)《进化论是怎么进化的?》(新潮选书)等。


刘大可 专业审订

科学题材作家,微博科学科普作者、知名人文艺术博主。


凌文桦 译者

幽居江南的日语译者,喜欢看书、翻书,现已出版多本日语翻译书籍,擅长翻译儿童绘本、科普、美食、历史等图书。


Catalogue

序章 为什么我们会活着? ……1

活着有其目的吗? ……1

台风也有“生命”……3

生物就是为了活才被创造出来的……6

要活就要吃……8


第1部分 人类并不处于进化的顶点

第1章 因为进化而得了心脏病……15

一将功成万骨枯……15

为了保全肺所做的努力……17

心脏分区使用……20

冰人告诉我们的事……22

心脏是进化的不良设计? ……25


第2章 人类输给鸟类也输给恐龙的肺……28

为什么金鱼会有肺? ……28

被钓起的鱼会马上死掉的理由……29

不可能打掉重练……31

鱼的血液循环效率很低……34

水中生活大不易……36

进化的接力赛……39

哺乳类曾经是失败者……41


第3章 肾脏、尿与伟大的“存在之链”……45

伟大的“存在之链”……45

关键在于氮的处理方式……47

鸡蛋中的“尿素”会变咸……50

最棒的方法是尿酸……51

蜥蜴和人类谁比较优秀?……53

人并非进化最终端的物种……56


第4章 人类与肠道细菌的微妙关系……60

如何分辨前面与后面? ……60

消化道中遍布细菌……63

管腔内消化与膜消化……65

与肠道细菌的竞争……68


第5章 现在连肠胃也进化了……72

已经成年了,却还在喝奶? ……72

乳糖酶活性持续症因天择而普及开来……74

喝奶到底有啥好处? ……76

我们应该回到旧石器时代? ……78

方向性选择与稳定化选择……79

进化的速度出人意料得快……83


第6章 人类的眼睛是多么“失败的设计”? ……85

半成品的眼睛毫无用处……85

有进化与没进化的差别……86

从各种各样的眼睛得到的结论……89

眼睛进化的道路有好多条……92

眼睛的进化:有前进也有后退的进化……97

我们的眼睛只是半成品?……99


第2部分 人类是如何成为智人的?

第7章 腰痛是人类的宿命……105

昆虫与脊椎动物……105

鱼一定要有脊椎吗? ……107

一开始骨头只是“储藏库”……109

有脊索,身体就不会缩短……110

从“储藏库”到脊椎……112

直立起来的脊椎……113

脊椎的不自然使用方法……116

为什么5亿年间脊柱都没有消失……118


第8章 人类比黑猩猩“原始”? ……121

用手取代脚的动物……121

黑猩猩的手与人类的手……123

我们的手很特殊吗? ……126

“原始的”与“派生的”……128

人类与黑猩猩的最后共同祖先……132


第9章 自然选择与两足直立行走……134

明天的事,明天再说……134

如何爬大树……136

如何爬小树……138

为什么黑猩猩到现在还是四肢行走……141


第10章 人类难产的原因……145

胆小的蝙蝠与骨盆的形状……145

南方古猿的脚印……149

人类为何难产……151

鱼与熊掌不可兼得……154


第11章 物竞天择,或是灭绝? ……156

人与马的马拉松赛跑……156

人类擅长“追逐”……158

懒惰的原始人……161

物竞天择的真相……163

对达尔文进化论的误解……165


第12章 一夫一妻制不是绝对的……167

人类从人猿分离出来的理由……167

獠牙为什么消失了……169

两足直立行走和中间社会……171

人类的本质……174

与类人猿的比较……176

难产与社会性分娩……177

人类的小孩最难照顾……179

我们不适合一夫一妻制?……182


终章 为什么我们会死?……185

细菌活了四十亿年……185

寿命是进化的产物……186

生物的奇点早已出现……188

“死亡”使生物诞生……190


结束语……193


Introduction

有一位曾在知名企业担任高层的男子退休了。该男子想再就业,于是到“Hello Work(你好,工作)”职业介绍所咨询,同时也参加了许多公司的面试。尽管如此,但他总忘不了自己曾经是在知名企业待过的人。“这么差劲的条件,怎么可能让我为你工作呢?你太小瞧人了,难道不知道我是谁吗?”他终于忍不住脱口而出。

这是我最近读的一本小说里的内容,它让我产生了许多假想:

30 世纪,宇宙旅行对地球人来说已经是家常便饭了,人们不仅能领略宇宙风光,还能和宇宙中许多外星球的人相互交流。某一天,一颗巨大的陨石撞击了地球,地球被撞得粉碎。幸运的是,由于地球上的许多生物事先已获悉这个消息,并移居到外星球上,便也没造成什么大的损失。

人类、蚯蚓和松树移居到了阿尔法星球。

“你们的母星没了,真可怜啊。”一开始,阿尔法星人十分同情来自地球的移民们,并善待他们。可是时间一长,阿尔法星人觉得地球生物是负担。

“既不肯干活,又一个劲地只知道吃,地球生物的脸皮可真厚啊。”阿尔法星人故意大声地说地球生物的坏话,地球生物的日子也变得越来越难过了。于是松树开始干活了,利用光合作用产生氧气。因为阿尔法星人也要吸氧,所以对松树充满了感激。

“松树真是努力啊。只要靠近松树,就能吸收许多氧气,心情也跟着变好了。再看看人类跟蚯蚓,真是一点用处都没有啊。”处境尴尬的蚯蚓也开始去田地里干活了。由于蚯蚓在土壤中来回翻动,土壤渐渐被改良了。

“蚯蚓也很努力。多亏了蚯蚓,农作物的产量也翻倍了。再看看人类,真是太没用了。”

听到这话,人类生气了。

“你别小瞧人,你知道我是谁吗?我可是人类啊!在地球上,我可是很风光的。你们知道不知道?我比蚯蚓和松树还要厉害!”

阿尔法星人皱起了眉头。

“那么,你能做些蚯蚓和松树都做不到的事吗?”

“当……当然能……”

“能做什么呢?”

“嗯……加法!对,我能做加法!”

但是,阿尔法星人也能做加法,因此地球人还是没能显示出自己的一点用处。

地球上有各种各样的生物,人类这种类人猿种族是其中一种。人类十分兴盛,但仅仅是出现在地球上的偶然事件,若是到了其他地方或其他时代,结果就不得而知了。100 年后,人类会变得怎样,也无人能知。

我们人类既不是进化的顶点,也不是进化的终点,只是处于进化的中途。从这个意义来说,人类与其他生物没有区别。

而且,不论我们怎么进化,都无法做到完全适应环境。

外来物种经常可以轻易地将本地原住民驱逐出境,从这一点我们就能清楚地了解到,所谓“完全适应环境的生物”,与其说是达到理想的境界,不如说是空想的产物,根本不存在的。

归根究底,生物(当然也包括我们人类在内)本来就是“不完美”的存在。

若真的有人认为人类是特殊物种,恐怕是因为我们的大脑比较大。但是,大约4 万年前灭绝的尼安德特人,他们的大脑似乎更大一些。不过,大脑大到底是好事还是坏事呢?

这可不好轻易下结论。

虽然人类在不断地进化,但是进化仅意味着变化,这既有好处也有坏处。进化不是进步,生存也不一定具有崇高的目的(当然,可以为了崇高的目的而活着,这是在生存过程中由自己决定的事情)。对于生物来说,生存就是目的,人类和大肠杆菌也是如此。

也就是说,人类其实并没有什么了不起的,既非世间独一无二的物种,也不位于世间的最顶端。从某种意义上来说,对于那些认为人类是高尚物种的人来说,进化可能是很残酷的,因为进化并没有把人类当作特殊物种来对待。

若是地球不存在了,你移居到了其他星球,说不定就要到“Hello Planet(你好,星球)”职业介绍所咨询了。即便你脾性温和,不会脱口而出无理的话,但是你可能也会这样想:别瞧不起人,也不看看我是谁?我是人类——地球上最伟大的物种!

到那时,“Hello Planet(你好,星球)”的工作人员又将对你说什么呢?我一边思索着这件事情,一边将所感所受撰写成本书。


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Jingdong book

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Jingdong book

步步惊心.上

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