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养老服务指导丛书·老年期痴呆专业照护:护理人员实务培训

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《养老服务指导丛书·老年期痴呆专业照护:护理人员实务培训》按照老年专业照护人员的培训大纲编写,《养老服务指导丛书·老年期痴呆专业照护:护理人员实务培训》主要内容包括职业定位及素质要求、基本知识和基本技能(包括:早期迹象的识别、评估与就诊,重点掌握早期筛查工具的使用和陪同就医的方法;以人为本的专业照护理念和工作方法;与痴呆老人建立有效沟通。这将是痴呆专业照护最为基础的技能;为痴呆老人提供日常生活照护、尤其是针对痴呆老人各种生活障碍的照护方法为痴呆老人设计和安排活动的方法;痴呆老人出现行为和精神症状时的照护方法;痴呆老人的临终关怀;居家专业照护专题;护理人员的自我照顾与权益保护。
通过培训,提高护理人员对痴呆老人照护需求的认知,提高职业素质,增强为痴呆老人提供专业照护的技能,进而改善服务品质。
Catalogue

第1章 岗位职能和素质要求
第1节 痴呆专业照护培训的重要性
第2节 培训对象和培训目标
第3节 岗位职责与职业素质
第2章 痴呆相关基础知识
第1节 痴呆综合征
第2节 病程的发展与症状表现
第3节 痴呆对老人认知功能的影响
第4节 痴呆老人的行为和精神症状
第5节 痴呆老人常见的躯体健康问题
第3章 痴呆早期迹象的识别、评估与就医
第l节 痴呆早期迹象的识别
第2节 痴呆早期筛查工具的使用
第3节 诊断与药物治疗基本知识
第4节 陪同就医
第5节 应对拒绝就医的情况
第4章 以人为本的专业照护
第1节 以人为本的照护模式
第2节 痴呆专业照护的理念及工作方法
第5章 与痴呆老人建立有效沟通
第1节 痴呆老人常见的沟通障碍
第2节 导致沟通障碍的原因
第3节 与痴呆老人沟通的重要原则
第4节 建立有效沟通的方法
第5节 与痴呆老人沟通的禁忌
第6章 日常生活照护的原则和方法
第1节 痴呆老人的日常生活照护原则
第2节 病程不同阶段的照护重点
第3节 护理人员的工作流程
第7章 常见生活障碍的照护
第l节 穿衣服
第2节 口腔保健
第3节 饮食障碍的照护
第4节 排泄管理
第5节 洗澡
第6节 睡眠障碍的照护
第7节 生活能力训练的常用方法
第8章 为痴呆老人设计和安排活动
第1节 适合痴呆老人的活动
第2节 设计活动的方法
第3节 活动组织管理的方法
第9章 行为和精神症状的应对
第1节 理解痴呆老人的行为和精神症状
第2节 行为和精神症状的应对方法
第10章 常见行为和精神症状的照护
第1节 重复行为的照护
第2节 应对错认
第3节 应对妄想和猜疑
第4节 应对幻觉和错觉
第5节 应对跟脚
第6节 情感淡漠的照护
第7节 激越行为的照护
第8节 应对攻击行为
第9节 游荡行为的照护
第10节 其他行为症状的照护
第11章 晚期照护
第1节 晚期阶段的病症特点
第2节 个人护理
第3节 疼痛管理
第4节 行为症状的识别和照护
第5节 情感和精神支持
第12章 临终关怀
第l节 临终关怀的目标
第2节 临终关怀的工作方法
第13章 居家专业照护专题
第l节 痴呆老人所需的居家专业照护
第2节 与家庭成员的良好沟通
第3节 任务、方法与行为准则
第4节 居家安全
第5节 独居老人的照顾
第6节 外出陪护
第14章 护理人员的自我照顾与权益保护
第l节 护理人员的自我照顾
第2节 护理人员的权益保护
名词释义
主要参考资料
后记
Book Abstract

第2节 病程的发展与症状表现
一、痴呆的分期
阿尔茨海默病和其他绝大多数类型的痴呆都是渐进发展的,患病老人的认知功能、生活能力和身体功能随着病程的发展而不断衰退。虽然老人的症状会表现得时好时坏,但总体来看,他们的能力是在不断下降的。
医学上对于痴呆有几种划分阶段的方法,常用的方法是将痴呆分为早期、中期和晚期。这三个阶段只是一种大致的划分方法——某些患病老人可能迅速衰退,某些则可能衰退得较慢。需要注意的是,并非所有痴呆老人都会表现出全部的症状。每位痴呆老人大脑受损的区域和程度都有所不同,这就意味着老人虽然有很多共性症状,但同时每一位老人也都是独一无二的,需要个性化的对待和照顾。
二、各阶段的症状表现
1.早期阶段
痴呆的早期阶段,也就是疾病的轻度阶段,可能会延续1—3年,或者更长的时间。早期的症状经常被忽视,因为家庭成员和朋友(有时候也包括专业人员)会将老人记忆力或情绪行为的改变认为是正常老化的表现。由于痴呆逐渐缓慢发病,因此难以明确界定老人到底是什么时候开始发病的。
在这一阶段,常见的症状表现有:
(1)很难想起近期的事情和谈话;
(2)很难记住月份或星期;
(3)容易忘记子女、孙辈和配偶的生曰,但经提醒还能记起来;
(4)容易忘记和亲友约好的事情;
(5)做饭和购物变得越来越困难;
(6)容易遗失物品;
(7)把物品放错位置,而且想不起来到底把这些东西放到哪里了;
(8)在原本熟悉的环境中也可能迷失方向(比如忘记从超市回家的路);
(9)判断力差,难以做出明智决定;
(10)做决定时犹豫不决;
(11)失去财务管理的能力。
……
Introduction

随着老龄化社会的快速到来,我国已经成为世界上老年人口最多的国家,巨大的养老服务需求与专业化服务提供不足的矛盾日益突出。老年人最值得全社会的尊敬和爱戴,更需要关心和帮助。积极应对人口老龄化、为老年人提供有尊严的专业照扩服务、从而提升老年人的生活水平和生命质量是全社会的共同愿望。近年来,政府部门将推进养老服务业快速发展作为重要民生工程,出台了一系列优惠扶持政策,其中重点强调专业化技能人才培养。2013年,国家民政部设立了彩票公益金专项资助,委托中同社会福利协会组织北京大学等相关院校及研究机构研发了养老服务职业技能系列实训教材。
随着人口的老龄化和高龄化,痴呆老人的数量正在急剧增加。如何为痴呆老人提供良好的长期照顾、护理和支持,是所有从事养老服务工作的专业人员都需要面临的课题。尤其是为痴呆老人提供直接服务的护理人员,需要具备更高的职业素质和技能,以确保能够为痴呆老人提供高质量和安全的服务。
本教材以提高护理人员为痴呆老人提供专业服务的能力为目标,按照《老年期痴呆专业照护——护理人员实务培训大纲》编写。本教材由十三个章节组成,包括:“岗位职能定位和素质要求”“痴呆综合征相关知识…‘痴呆早期迹象的识别、评估与就诊”“以人为本的专业照护…‘与痴呆老人建立有效沟通”“日常生活照护的原则和方法常见生活障碍的照护”“为痴呆老人设计和安排活动”“行为和精神症状的应对常见行为和精神症状的照护”“晚期照扩”“临终关怀…‘居家专业照护专题”和“护理人员的自我照顾与权益保护”。教材内容简明、通俗、实用,力求让护理人员熟悉痴呆老人特殊的照护需求,掌握为痴呆老人提供专业照护的有效方法,进而改善服务品质。
在本册教材编写过程中,记忆健康360工程和北京大学精神卫生研究所的专家团队在洪立女士、王华丽教授的带领下,以高度的社会责任感投身工作,深入服务机构调研,与实务工作者共同切磋,结合自身的教学经验和实践经验,并广泛征求相关领域专家意见,为教材编写付出了辛勤努力,形成了一部既具有专业水准,又具有对岗位技能培训发挥引导作用的应用型教材,与同期开发的其他岗位专业技能实训教材相配套,将为加快我国养老服务业人才队伍职业能力建设发挥重要智力支撑作用。
在此,中国社会福利协会对国家民政部、教育部、卫生部、人力资源和社会保障部领导给予的关怀、信任和指导表示衷心感谢!对全身心投入系列教材编写的专家学者们表示崇高的敬意和衷心感谢!希望在不久的将来专家们的辛勤付出能转化为各专业技能岗位的优质服务,使全国老年人安享幸福晚年。
因本系列丛书属创新性尝试,时间有限,还需在培训工作实践中不断充实完善,不足之处恳请广大读者和学习者加以批评指正,并提出修改完善意见,我们将不胜感激!
丛书编委会
分册编委会
2014年2月

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